How much protein is right? High protein, low, moderate???

This is an interesting issue in the Paleo/Low Carb world with a lot of opinions. There is also a lot of BroScience mostly from (Austrian voice on) HUGE (Austrian voice off) men who believe that consuming lots of protein and lifting only odd amounts of weight on even numbered days is the reason they are (Austrian voice on) SO HUGE (Austrian voice off.)

So here it goes.